Diet

Complete Protein vs. Incomplete Protein: A Guide

It is safe to say that protein is one of the best known nutrients in food for active individuals.

There are two types of protein containing foods that I want to touch on in this article: foods with complete proteins, or those containing all 9 essential amino acids; and foods with incomplete proteins, or those missing a proportionate amino acid profile.

The benefits of protein are nearly endless, especially for those involved in rigorous training! Many cells, tissues, blood, and antibodies can be rebuilt using protein, which makes it a vital component of our recovery. I mean, think about it – You ARE protein for the most part. Most of your tissues, hormones, and enzymes are made up of some sort of protein. But really, this is a controversial topic, especially when it comes to what foods you should consume to get enough proteins in.


What are Amino Acids?

Let’s touch on essential amino acids just briefly to build context. Amino acids are the building blocks of proteins and there are 20 of them in total, however, our bodies can actually produce the other 11 so we don’t need to worry about them. The nine that are left over can only come from eating food or supplementing our diets.

What are Complete Proteins?

A complete protein by definition comes from a source of food that contains an adequate proportion of each of the nine essential amino acids necessary in the human diet. Essentially, complete protein has everything you need in order to carry on with all of the essential functions of your body. This includes recovery from day to day activity up to the building of new muscle.

This is the one that matters the most if you are trying to build muscle, and this is a lifting site after all. It isn’t just the quantity that matters, its also very important that you are getting in the right quality protein.

What are Incomplete Proteins?

Now that complete proteins have been explained this one should already be pretty clear, but just in case- an incomplete protein is any protein that does not contain an adequate proportion of the nine essential amino acids. These are going to be most of your plant-based protein sources. This is why it can be difficult for those following a vegan diet or a vegetarian diet to get the correct proportions of their essential amino acids. Now, even though animal products are by far the easiest and most efficient way to get your full amino acid profile, you can do the same with just plants. The simplest and best way to do so is to combine different sources of plant proteins (i.e beans and rice). In doing so, you will allow each food to compensate for the lack of certain amino acids, in the food it is combined with.

This is in fact one of the main principles of vegetarian and vegan nutrition, as it allows you to meet your daily protein needs!

Why Should I Care About Complete Protein?

Your body needs the essential amino acids in complete protein to build muscle, transport nutrients, and build and repair tissue. If you are trying to grow, this is the protein that you should care about. Complete proteins also tend to be leaner and you don’t need to eat the same quantity of food to reach your protein goals. Protein is also the second most abundant nutrient in the body, coming only after water, so getting enough of it is crucial to good health, recovery, and growth.

Jumping into the bro-sciency side of things for a minute- animal proteins or those coming from animal products (think cheeses) seem to produce better recovery and results as well. Fish contains Omega 3s that help with joint health, beef contains creatine, and there are many other benefits that you just really can’t get as easily from incomplete protein foods.

Complete Protein Sources Include

Chicken- complete protein source.
Chicken- complete protein source.

Poultry

Fish

Eggs

Beef

Pork

Dairy

Soybean products

Quinoa

Hemp seeds

Supplemental powders and products

The Best Incomplete Protein Sources

Nuts, peas, beans, soy products, and grain plants are some of the best incomplete protein sources. Different proteins are found in these various foods, each with its own set of amino acids.

All of these products are at the top of the list of plant protein sources! Nevertheless, there are MANY other plant products that you can use to meet your needs.

Here is a list of the most common plant-based products and their protein content (per 100g).

Almonds- incomplete protein source.
Almonds- incomplete protein source.

Almonds- 21

Beans- 21 to 25 depending on the type of beans

Short grain white rice- 6.5

Long grain white rice- 7.13

Medium grain white rice- 6.5

Green peas- 5.42

Long grain brown rice- 7.94

Medium grain brown rice- 7.5

Cashew- 18

Wheat germs- 7.49

Hazelnuts- 15

Lentils- 26

Pasta- incomplete protein source.
Pasta- incomplete protein source.

Pasta- 10.8

Oats- 16.89

Walnuts- 15

Millet- 11.02

Rye- 10

Soy- 36.9

Sesame- 18

Nuts- 26

Peanut butter- 25

Bread- 7.1

Corn- 9.42

What Complete Proteins are Best for Building Muscle?

This is going to sound like a cop-out, but… all of them. The best thing you can do for health and progress is practice healthy eating and include a variety of different protein foods in your diet. Each source will have different micronutrients and slightly different essential amino acid profiles that will help keep your body healthy and produce better results. Listen to your body as well, you may digest different foods better or notice you feel better after eating specific foods. Some people claim to get better results from steak, some claim to get them from chicken. It may just be placebo, but placebo works! If you find that one source provides better results for you, include more of that in your diet, but don’t forget to keep the others.

How Much Complete Protein Should be Consumed?

This depends on your daily activity, lifestyle, metabolism, and more. For the sake of this article I am going to assume you are active and trying to gain muscle or lose weight. In this case I would recommend consuming roughly 1 gram of protein per pound of lean bodyweight. I am sure this could be argued and discussed at length, but this is a good starting point. I personally consume about 1.2 grams per pound as I get the best recovery using that metric.

How to get in Enough Protein.

Getting enough complete proteins in your diet can be difficult at times. One of the most common ways to get in additional protein is by supplementing it with powdered whey. However, for your own health it is best not to get the majority of your protein from one source. You can also increase other complete proteins by doing things like- – Snack on cheeses or jerky throughout the day- Replace cereals with eggs- Replace yogurts and sour creams with Greek yogurt.

Conclusion

Even though protein from animal foods is superior to plant protein, there really is no reason why someone wouldn’t be able to meet their needs by eating just plants alone. Now, doing this is generally harder, but as long as you combine different sources of plant protein (i.e legumes, grains and beans), you will be good to go!

Ultimately, your best bet would be to consume up to 1g per lb. of bodyweight every day, derived from a variety of sources. Whether you are meeting your needs or not, can be judged on how you perform, recover, and feel.

Not sure how many calories you should be consuming? Check out this Calorie Calculator!

Have additional questions? Leave a comment below!

7 comments on “Complete Protein vs. Incomplete Protein: A Guide

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